They purchased and maintained the rolling stock—6,000 locomotives were in operation in 1880, which averaged 51,600 passengers a year or 21,200 tons of freight. Bishops were much less powerful than before, and had no political voice. Instead, the Convention banned women from all political assemblies, and deputies who had solidarized with this insurrection were sentenced to death: such allegiance between parliament and street fighting was no longer tolerated. Conflicts between the Chinese Emperor and the French Republic over Indochina climaxed during the Sino-French War (1884–85). The Communists had largely dominated the Resistance inside France, but cooperated closely with the government in 1944–45, on orders from the Kremlin. Berstein, Serge, Jean-Pierre Rioux, and Christopher Woodall. The pope held onto Rome only because Napoleon sent troops to protect him. This period also saw the rise of a complex system of international alliances and conflicts opposing, through dynasties, Kings of France and England and Holy Roman Emperor. The abolition of slavery and introduction of male universal suffrage, which were briefly enacted during the French Revolution, were re-enacted in 1848. The Gauls, the largest and best attested group, were Celtic people speaking what is known as the Gaulish language. By the 1970s, says Robert Aldrich, the last "vestiges of empire held little interest for the French." The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned the empire, with West Francia becoming the Kingdom of France in 987. At 4,810.45 metres (15,782 ft) above sea level, Mont Blanc, located in the Alps on the French and Italian border, is the highest point in Western Europe.  He went to Canada and proclaimed "Vive le Québec libre", the catchphrase for an independent Quebec..  As of 2016[update], 72% of the electricity produced by France is generated by 58 nuclear power plants. Originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or "realm of the Franks". , In 1802, Napoleon created the lycée, the second and final stage of secondary education that prepares students for higher education studies or a profession. Matters grew worse in the 1860s as Napoleon nearly blundered into war with the United States in 1862, while his takeover of Mexico in 1861–67 was a total disaster. Other appointees represented various royalist factions. James McDougall, "The Impossible Republic: The Reconquest of Algeria and the Decolonization of France, 1945–1962,", Douglas A. Hibbs Jr, and Nicholas Vasilatos. Metropolitan France is situated mostly between latitudes 41° and 51° N, and longitudes 6° W and 10° E, on the western edge of Europe, and thus lies within the northern temperate zone. The assumption of the crown in 751 by Pepin the Short (son of Charles Martel) established the Carolingian dynasty as the Kings of the Franks. The invaders had stripped most of the valuable industrial tools for German factories.  The Government has a strong influence in shaping the agenda of Parliament. The Senate's legislative powers are limited; in the event of disagreement between the two chambers, the National Assembly has the final say. Its European territory kept growing, however, with notable acquisitions such as Lorraine (1766) and Corsica (1770).  Napoleon reorganized higher learning by dividing the Institut National into four (later five) academies. The way the king raised money from his vassals made him quite unpopular; he was described as greedy and ambitious and that is corroborated by records of the time. The first Barre plan emerged on 22 September 1976, with a priority to stop inflation. Finally, a compromise was achieved with the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. Elected on 8 February 1871, this new National Assembly was composed of 650 deputies.. , The war now became a stalemate – the famous "Western Front" was fought largely in France and was characterized by very little movement despite extremely large and violent battles, often with new and more destructive military technology. Germanic tribes, the Franks and the Alamanni, entered Gaul at this time. Charles X was deposed and replaced by King Louis-Philippe in the July Revolution. The French population suffered much from these wars. During the 16th century, the Spanish and Austrian Habsburgs were the dominant power in Europe. France possesses a wide variety of landscapes, from coastal plains in the north and west to mountain ranges of the Alps in the southeast, the Massif Central in the south central and Pyrenees in the southwest. France has also been actively involved against international terrorism. French composers from the Romantic era included: Hector Berlioz (best known for his Symphonie fantastique), Georges Bizet (best known for Carmen, which has become one of the most popular and frequently performed operas), Gabriel Fauré (best known for his Pavane, Requiem, and nocturnes), Charles Gounod (best known for his Ave Maria and his opera Faust), Jacques Offenbach (best known for his 100 operettas of the 1850s–1870s and his uncompleted opera The Tales of Hoffmann), Édouard Lalo (best known for his Symphonie espagnole for violin and orchestra and his Cello Concerto in D minor), Jules Massenet (best known for his operas, of which he wrote more than thirty, the most frequently staged are Manon (1884) and Werther (1892)) and Camille Saint-Saëns (he has many frequently-performed works, including The Carnival of the Animals, Danse macabre, Samson and Delilah (Opera), Introduction and Rondo Capriccioso and his Symphony No. Medieval philosophy was dominated by Scholasticism until the emergence of Humanism in the Renaissance. , France is one of the world leaders of gender equality in the workplace: as of 2017, it has 36.8% of its corporate board seats held by women, which makes it the leader of the G20 for that metric; and was ranked in 2019 by the World Bank as one of the only 6 countries in the world where women have the same work rights as men. The solution was a narrow base of funding through the Rothschilds and the closed circles of the Paris Bourse, so France did not develop the same kind of national stock exchange that flourished in London and New York. Until 1799, politicians, apart from inventing a new parliamentary system (the 'Directory'), busied themselves with dissuading the people from Catholicism and from royalism. It recognizes religious organisations according to formal legal criteria that do not address religious doctrine. It passed the Falloux Laws, putting education into the hands of the Catholic clergy. The Rhône divides the Massif Central from the Alps and flows into the Mediterranean Sea at the Camargue. Jones, Colin. " He demanded complete autonomy for France in world affairs, which meant that major decisions could not be forced upon it by NATO, the European Community or anyone else. There were measures to restore the trade balance, and support the growth of the economy and employment. Secularism is the closest thing the French have to a state religion. The most famous impressionist painters of the period were Camille Pissarro, Édouard Manet, Edgar Degas, Claude Monet and Auguste Renoir. The writer Émile Zola published an impassioned editorial on the injustice (J'Accuse…!) The most prestigious institutions are the state-owned Paris National Opera (with its two sites Palais Garnier and Opéra Bastille), the Opéra National de Lyon, the Théâtre du Châtelet in Paris, the Théâtre du Capitole in Toulouse and the Grand Théâtre de Bordeaux. Incessant screaming from the public galleries, always in favour of the Montagnards, suggested that all of Paris was against the Girondins, which was not really the case.  Many foreign Romani people are expelled back to Bulgaria and Romania frequently.. Napoleon's rule was constitutional, and although autocratic, it was much more advanced than traditional European monarchies of the time. In 1942 the birth rate started to rise, and by 1945 it was higher than it had been for a century.. The same year France contributed to the toppling of the Taliban regime in Afghanistan, but it strongly rejected the 2003 invasion of Iraq, even threatening to veto the US proposed resolution. French peasants had been poor and locked into old traditions until railroads, republican schools, and universal (male) military conscription modernized rural France. It was at peace throughout the period. The abbot was the son of a minor family of knights, but his political advice was extremely valuable to the king. The Roman polytheism merged with the Gallic paganism into the same syncretism. He realized France could neither contain the much larger Germany by itself nor secure effective support from Britain or the League..  Secte is considered a pejorative term in France. This movement may well have been the largest single movement of civilians in history prior to 1947.  At the Geneva Conference in July 1954 Mendès France made a deal that gave the Viet Minh control of Vietnam north of the seventeenth parallel, and allowed France to pull out all its forces. Charlemagne's son Louis the Pious (emperor 814–840) kept the empire united; however, this Carolingian Empire would not survive Louis I's death. In 1990 France, led by François Mitterrand, joined the short successful Gulf War against Iraq; the French participation to this war was called the Opération Daguet.. The Fête de la Musique, imitated by many foreign cities, was first launched by the French Government in 1982.  However its population growth was very slow, so as far as the growth rate in total size of the economy France was in next to the last place, just ahead of Italy. The French Revolution brought great changes, as Napoleon favoured artists of neoclassic style such as Jacques-Louis David and the highly influential Académie des Beaux-Arts defined the style known as Academism. Insurgents seized the Bastille prison, killing the governor and several of his guards. , Because of the constant threats to the throne, the July Monarchy began to rule with a stronger and stronger hand. The area was annexed by Rome in 51 BC, developing a distinct Gallo-Roman culture that laid the foundation of the French language. France was one of the Triple Entente powers in World War I, fighting alongside the United Kingdom, Russia, Italy, Japan, the United States and smaller allies against Germany and the Central Powers. A decree was adopted that day by the convention, after much tumultuous debate, expelling 22 leading Girondins from the convention. In 1848 general unrest led to the February Revolution and the end of the July Monarchy. Because the royal leadership essentially abandoned the city, the mobs soon had the support of the French Guard, including arms and trained soldiers. , After defeating Russia in 1917, Germany now could concentrate on the Western Front, and planned an all-out assault in the spring of 1918, but had to do it before the very rapidly growing American army played a role. Again in May a crowd of 20,000 men and 40,000 women invaded the convention and even killed a deputy in the halls, but again they failed to make the Convention take notice of the needs of the lower classes. The Enlightenment philosophy, in which reason is advocated as the primary source for legitimacy and authority, undermined the power of and support for the monarchy and helped pave the way for the French Revolution. , In an effort to isolate Germany, France went to great pains to woo Russia and Great Britain, first by means of the Franco-Russian Alliance of 1894, then the 1904 Entente Cordiale with Great Britain, and finally the Anglo-Russian Entente in 1907, which became the Triple Entente. This encouraged other Convention members to also defy Robespierre. Fashion has been an important industry and cultural export of France since the 17th century, and modern "haute couture" originated in Paris in the 1860s. Maurice Ravel and Claude Debussy are the most prominent figures associated with Impressionist music. The new car market is dominated by domestic brands such as Renault (27% of cars sold in France in 2003), Peugeot (20.1%) and Citroën (13.5%). With most of the Assembly still favoring a constitutional monarchy rather than a republic, the various groups reached a compromise. The first written records for the history of France appear in the Iron Age. Vauban, France's leading military strategist, warned the King in 1689 that a hostile "Alliance" was too powerful at sea. A witty, tireless antagonist to the alliance between the French state and the church, he was exiled from France on a number of occasions. Music, theater, science, and philosophy all flourished. The government provided a modest allowance, but one in ten became prostitutes to support their families. Some of his verses have entered the popular language to become proverbs, such as "À l'œuvre, on connaît l'artisan. Louis VI was more a soldier and warmongering king than a scholar. Great Britain had bought the Egyptian share from Isma'il Pasha and was the second-largest owner of the canal before the crisis. In practice, the curricula were similar in Catholic and state schools. Apart from low-interest loans, the other funds were grants that did not involve repayment. Italy, although tied to Germany, remained neutral and then joined the Allies in 1915. Summers are warm and dry, while winters are cool and wet.  Important writers of the 20th century include Marcel Proust, Louis-Ferdinand Céline, Albert Camus, and Jean-Paul Sartre. Considered to be a precursor to modern international rights instruments and using the U.S. Its immediate consequence was a large Protestant exodus from France.  At the same time, some Celtic tribes penetrated the eastern parts (Germania superior) of the current territory of France, but this occupation spread in the rest of France only between the 5th and 3rd century BC. Jacques Peletier du Mans (1517-1582) was one of the scholars who reformed the French language. The wars were so expensive, and so inconclusive, that although France gained some territory to the east, its enemies gained more strength than it did. Prince Louis (the future Louis VIII, reigned 1223–26) was involved in the subsequent English civil war as French and English (or rather Anglo-Norman) aristocracies were once one and were now split between allegiances. Britain had 5 million, Spain had 8 million, and the Austrian Habsburgs had around 8 million. French companies have maintained key positions in the insurance and banking industries: AXA is the world's largest insurance company. Official Site of the Olympic Movement", "World Cup 2018: France beat Croatia 4-2 in World Cup final", 1984: Platini shines for flamboyant France, "Thierry Henry calls end to France career", "Change Seems Essential to Escape Extinction: Wimbledon: World's Most Loved Dinosaur", Official site of the French public service, Sovereign states and dependencies of Europe, autonomous country of the Kingdom of Denmark, Countries and dependencies of South America, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, Commission against Racism and Intolerance, Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe, Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique, Prix des cinq continents de la francophonie, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=France&oldid=1001678020, French-speaking countries and territories, Member states of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, Member states of the Union for the Mediterranean, States and territories established in 1792, Articles with dead external links from March 2020, Articles with Dutch-language sources (nl), Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Wikipedia introduction cleanup from January 2021, Articles covered by WikiProject Wikify from January 2021, All articles covered by WikiProject Wikify, Articles containing potentially dated statements from December 2020, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the symbol caption or type parameters, Articles containing Italian-language text, Articles containing Swedish-language text, Articles containing Proto-Germanic-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2019, Articles containing undetermined-language text, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2009, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2019, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2016, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2018, Articles with failed verification from February 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2018, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2008, Articles containing potentially dated statements from January 2021, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2019, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2007, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2014, Articles with incomplete citations from January 2018, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2015, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2011, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2017, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, State private property under the direct authority of the. In February 1787, the king's finance minister, Charles Alexandre de Calonne, convened an Assembly of Notables, a group of nobles, clergy, bourgeoisie, and bureaucrats selected in order to bypass the local parliaments. The Suez Canal, having been built by the French government, belonged to the French Republic and was operated by the Compagnie universelle du canal maritime de Suez. "Frankish language") of the Crusader states.  Mid-October, the widowed former queen Marie Antoinette was on trial for a long list of charges such as "teaching [her husband] Louis Capet the art of dissimulation" and incest with her son, she too was guillotined. Despite strong American pressure through the ERP, there was little change in the organization and content of the training for French industrial managers. ", The present-day state of Austria did not exist as such, its territory was part of the.  A regional nature park (French: parc naturel régional or PNR) is a public establishment in France between local authorities and the national government covering an inhabited rural area of outstanding beauty, to protect the scenery and heritage as well as setting up sustainable economic development in the area. , The French health care system is one of universal health care largely financed by government national health insurance. French overseas territories in the Pacific Ocean only. A delegation of the Commune (Paris city council) suggested to form revolutionary armies to arrest hoarders and conspirators. France was one of the founding members of NATO (1949). Population increased by 3 million, and prosperity was strong from 1815 to 1825, with the depression of 1825 caused by bad harvests.  They were joined by numerous former colonial subjects from North and West Africa, as well as numerous European immigrants from Spain and Portugal. As of 2017, voter turnout was 75 percent during recent elections, higher than the OECD average of 68 percent.. Léon Gambetta chose moderate Armand Dufaure as premier but he failed to form a government. Philip III became king when Saint Louis died in 1270 during the Eighth Crusade. The French monarchy then sought for allies and found one in the Ottoman Empire. He systematically destroyed castles of defiant lords and denounced the use of private violence (dueling, carrying weapons and maintaining private armies). , An election on 26 March 1871 in Paris produced a government based on the working class.  Led by Villars, French forces recovered much of the lost ground in battles such as Denain (1712). Including metropolitan France, the total amount of land under French sovereignty reached 11,500,000 km2 (4,400,000 sq mi) in 1920, with a population of 110 million people in 1939. He restored cordial Franco-German relations to create a European counterweight between the American and Soviet spheres of influence.  Barère, member of the Committee of Public Safety, on 1 August incited the convention to tougher measures against the Vendée, at war with Paris since March: "We'll have peace only when no Vendée remains … we'll have to exterminate that rebellious people". Into the 1960s decolonization saw most of the French colonial empire become independent, while smaller parts were incorporated into the French state as overseas departments and collectivities. The UNESCO inscribed 45 sites in France on the World Heritage List.. , Frustration among the laboring classes arose when the Constituent Assembly did not address the concerns of the workers. France - France - Economy: France is one of the major economic powers of the world, ranking along with such countries as the United States, Japan, Germany, Italy, and the United Kingdom. It played a central role in the unification process after 1945 that led to the European Union. Under Louis XIII, the energetic Cardinal Richelieu promoted the centralisation of the state and reinforced the royal power by disarming domestic power holders in the 1620s. Although the Coalition was joined by other allies, the French Empire was also not alone since it now had a complex network of allies and subject states. During the 16th century, the king began to claim North American territories and established several colonies. November 1918 brought a surge of pride and unity, and an unrestrained demand for revenge. He depended too heavily upon his inept chief minister Polignac. Germany's invasion of Poland in 1939 finally caused France and Britain to declare war against Germany. The Age of Enlightenment was marked by the work of biologist Buffon and chemist Lavoisier, who discovered the role of oxygen in combustion, while Diderot and D'Alembert published the Encyclopédie, which aimed to give access to "useful knowledge" to the people, a knowledge that they can apply to their everyday life. ", Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs, "History of France – The Capetian kings of France: AD 987–1328", Hundred Years' War: Joan of Arc and the Siege of Orléans, Historical dynamics: why states rise and fall, "Scholarly bibliography by Colin Jones (2002)", Encyclopedia Of World War I: A Political, Social, And Military History, "The Danish Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies", "BBC - History - World Wars: The Vichy Policy on Jewish Deportation", "In France, a War of Memories Over Memories of War", "Declaration by the Franco-German Defense and Security Council", "Officials: Paris Unity Rally Largest in French History", "Paris attacks: Millions rally for unity in France", "Parisians throw open doors in wake of attacks, but Muslims fear repercussions", "Yes, Parisians are traumatised, but the spirit of resistance still lingers", "Europe's open-border policy may become latest victim of terrorism", "French policies provoke terrorist attacks", "Mont Blanc shrinks by 45 cm (17.72 in) in two years", "CO2 : la France moins pollueuse grâce au nucléaire", "2018 EPI Results | Environmental Performance Index", "EU promises 20% reduction in carbon emissions by 2020", "France Sets Carbon Tax at 17 Euros a Ton", "Why France's forests are getting bigger", "Countries Compared by Environment > Forest area > % of land area", "Evolution of the French forest from 1984 to 1996", "Anthropogenic modification of forests means only 40% of remaining forests have high ecosystem integrity - Supplementary Material", "Parks and other protected areas in France", "Fédération des parcs naturels régionaux de France", "La France veut créer une Zone Économique Exclusive en Méditérannée", "Circonscriptions administratives au 1er janvier 2015 : comparaisons régionales", "Constitutional Limits on Government: Country Studies – France", "Le quinquennat : le référendum du 24 Septembre 2000", "The National Assembly and the Senate – General Characteristics of the Parliament", "François Hollande signs same-sex marriage into law", La lutte contre le racisme et l'antisémintisme en France, "Membership of the Security Councils of the UN", "About the Association of Caribbean States", "L'alliance Franco-allemande au coeur de la puissance européenne", "De Gaulle says 'non' to Britain – again", "Quand Mitterrand, déjà, négociait le retour de la France dans l'Otan", "Le retour de la France dans l'OTAN suscite un malaise dans les rangs de la Droite", "Fifth French nuclear test sparks international outrage", "Foreign Policy Implications of the Iraq War", "House cafeterias change names for 'french' fries and 'french' toast", "France involvement in peace-keeping operations", "Official development assistance (ODA) – Net ODA – OECD Data", "Aid to developing countries rebounds in 2013 to reach an all-time high".
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